(Portuguese Translation by Marcelo Moreira Jr.)
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Back to Fitzgerald, Lorentz, Einstein, and Relativity
This part of my website which eventually leads to time dilation has caused some people to be stressed. First there are those who believe that Einstein's theories of relativity (special and general) imply that space is nothing but emptiness. These people usually believe that time dilation is a proof that space is emptiness. They are not happy to see a proof that time dilation is a consequence of moving through an ether-like medium. Other people belong to the protesting groups that insist that there is a form of ether through which light moves as a series of waves. These people have also considered time dilation to be a proof of emptiness, but they believe in a form of ether, so time dilation must not exist. Consequently, they do not like this proof either. In other words, both camps would rather that this proof did not exist. Yet this proof for time dilation caused by ether does show that if there is an ether that is a medium for light, there must also be time dilation.
Einstein did not actually believe that space is emptiness. I say this because his last work was on tensor analysis of "space" as the basis of light as wave form. He believed that space was empty of matter as we know it, but obviously he believed that space itself is a medium. Tensor analysis (TA) is much like a form of dynamic structural engineering in the sense that TA uses three planes at ninety degrees from one another and each with three forms of stress. Unless something is present within which these stresses can exist, there can be no stresses. He did not call this something "ether". He called it spacetime. But whatever he called it, he considered to be a medium through which light moves as a wave. In my research, I found implications that Einstein was not happy with either of his theories of relativity - nor was he happy with quantum theory. Yet, he died without having discovered a viable substitute for either.
In nether theory, the electron has the distinctive qualities of a vortex (see Spin and The Vortex). Every vortex has a "mouth" which sucks in the medium of which it is composed. Vortices such as the whirlwind or the tornado pull in various forms of matter along with the air of which they are composed. Vortices such as the whirlpool pull in various forms of matter along with the water of which they are composed. The mouths of these vortices are pointed in a manner which forces them to either suck from below (the tornado), or from above (the whirlpool). But a vortex of dynamic ether has a mouth which can point in any direction.
When the electron mouth is pointed in any particular direction, it tries to move in that direction. This is evident when the electron is oriented by a magnetic field (see complete explanation in Book Three of Behind Light's Illusion). On the other hand, when the electron is forced to move in any particular direction, it orients itself so that its mouth is pointed in its direction of movement and a "flux field" develops. This is evident when electrons are pumped through a wire by an electrical potential and is the key to our electrical devices. The electron's mouth is always pointed in its direction of motion because less energy is used to accelerate the incoming ether when such an orientation is present, and the ether is "energy conscious."
Any vortex must form from having its medium turn in a direction that is at right angles to its incoming motion. This has to do with conservation of energy and momentum and is explained more fully in Book Three of Behind Light's Illusion. Because the vortex that we call the electron is able to move and to orient its mouth in any direction of our three-spatial-dimension universe, the final inward flow must turn into a dimension that is at right angles to every dimension in our universe. If you believe at first that this cannot be visualized, you will see in a few more paragraphs that it can be visualized and that you have visualized it all of your life. First, however, there are other things that you should know.
If we concede that the electron is a vortex, then what of the other subatomic entities that constitute what we call matter? Are they also vortices? In Book Six of Behind Light's Illusion, you will see that they are indeed. The quarks are only a part of a particular type of subatomic entity and these entities form a proton according to the rules found in quantum chromodynamics (QCD).
The entities known as neutrinos are not vortices and not constituents of matter. The theory published in the first edition of Book Six of Behind Light's Illusion is that they are left-over swirls of excess rotational energy which remain within a sea of frictionless ether and are held together by its pressure. However, I have since found a more logical explanation in which each is a single half-wave of electromagnetic radiation. This is too complex a theory to easily explain here. Suffice to say, a half-wave moves at the speed of light and has no mass, micro-gravity, or charge. It is not detectable as a photon although it is the basic unit that comprises photons. It has the ability to accept, transport, and produce spin.
There is a unique difference between entities of matter and neutrinos. Entities of matter can communicate with one another through what we call electrical charge, electromagnetic waves, and gravity (actually what I call micro-gravity at the level of the individual entity). These three means of communication are caused by vectors of vortex inward flow. In the case of electromagnetic waves, movement of a vortex is also involved. Because a neutrino has no vortex and no inward flow, it cannot communicate except through a direct collision. Consequently, detection of neutrinos is exceedingly difficult.
There are three vectors of inward flow for the vortex. If we choose any particular point to examine these vectors, we can draw a line from the vortex center through this point. This line is the "radial" through our point. The vector of ether motion along this line toward the vortex center is what causes micro-gravity. It is a very weak force at the level of a single subatomic entity. The vector of ether motion that is at right angles to the radial is the cause of what we call "spin". And lastly, the vector which is the resultant of the foregoing two is at 45 degrees from the radial and causes what we call electrical charge.
Now that we have had very brief glimpse of the nature of matter, we will
look at the nature of time. We are doing this because time is an
integral part of matter. Matter could not exist without time and one
particular type of time would not exist without matter. In Book Five
of Behind Light's Illusion, six types of time are defined. This was
necessary because we cannot discuss time intelligently without defining
the particular type.
DURATION (Fourth-Dimensional Time)
As you have already gathered, time is a word with multiple meanings. One of these is "duration", a quality that may never have begun and may never end. It is a dimension that we see by looking backward in our lives and sometimes imagine by looking forward. It is as if we were moving along this dimension, leaving behind us a lifetime of experiences. But we live only in the present and look with certainty only at the past.
We could visualize our universe of three spatial dimensions as a plane moving along a perpendicular dimension which we call time. As our universe moves along the time line, movement within our universe is what causes it to change, and we are able to move forward along our course as the contrails of experiences form behind us.
If we look upon this type of time as a dimension which is at right angles
to all three of our spatial dimensions, we can and do visualize the fourth
dimension as our past and our possible future. And this fourth dimension
meets the requirements of the fourth dimension into which ether disappears
when it enters the vortex that is the electron. It appears that when two
gamma rays meet with the correct orientation to one another, the extreme
pressure within the ether at that point exceeds what can be tolerated within
that instant of our three-dimensional space. So a hole is opened into the
fourth dimension and the pressure is diverted into the past. Centrifugal
force keeps the hole open and the vortex remains. But there is much more
to the story - which includes antimatter and energy.
THE ILLUSION (The time of motion)
Looking upon another type of time, the type that actually is the measure of what we call time, we can use a different visualization. Each moment that we call the present is a single frame upon a movie film, and each past moment is another frame. Together, the many frames of the past describe the movement that is our lives up till now. The incoming frames create our future through new motion. Though each frame is a still photo when alone, together they describe a work of four-dimensional art that is our movie - our illusion. Without these frames, there would be no motion. Without time, there would be no motion. So some people equate time to motion and motion to time. But this illusion can run either slow or fast - just as a movie can run in slow or fast motion.
This type of time is best illustrated by the equation rate is equal to distance divided by time or r = d/t. Then, re-arranged, time is equal to distance divided by rate. We use miles per hour to show a rate of speed. We show a year by one revolution about the sun. The old month was from new moon to new moon or from full moon to full moon. A day is measured by one rotation of the earth relative to the sun. This is the "measure" of time but we often call it "time" in our conversation. It is a relative measure based upon motions.
This is the type of "time" which we talk about slowing down due to time
dilation. As the interval of time needed for the completion of any particular
motion approaches infinity, the passage of time is said to approach zero
Time dilation occurs because of relative ether (nether)
velocity. Because gravity is a form of relative ether velocity, gravity
affects the passage of this type of time. A spaceship moving through space
at high velocity relative to the ether also experiences time dilation.
SUBMICROSCOPIC TIME (added 11/13/05)
This is a time-type that is identical to the illusion above, but is on a very tiny level. It is the time that is used for chemical, electrical, biological, and nuclear processes. Your physiology is based upon this type of time. No processes can occur without it, and that includes the processes that must exist for hormones, nerves, muscles, growth, biological repairs, immune systems, and respiratory systems to function.
Temperature is measured by means of vorticle motion. The faster the atoms in a piece of matter move, the hotter is the piece of matter. Fast motion of atoms or molecules makes chemical processes go faster. Reducing the temperature makes chemical processes slow down. Decay is a chemical process. The time for decay to occur can be retarded with refrigeration, a process that slows submicroscopic time.
Another thing that retards this type of time is motion relative to the ether, such as existing in a gravity funnel where ether (nether) is rushing past, being in orbit where both orbital and gravity funnel ether velocities contribute, or having simple linear velocity relative to the ether as a spaceship would have. However, this is not a practical way to preserve things, such as food, at our present level of technology because we would be forced to live in the same place with the same rate of time passage as our food.
Think of a spaceship moving through the ether with its occupants and their belongings. Everything moving with the spaceship must communicate by staying with the ship at the same average velocity. The word average is used because all of the molecules, atoms, and subatomic entities of the spaceship, everyone and everything on it are in motion relative to one another. For chemical, electrical, biological, and nuclear processes to occur, there must be communication between the molecules, atoms, and subatomic entities that constitute this moving mass. The greatest speed that can be achieved by any of them or by radiation from them is the speed of light. All speeds for processes are lesser than and proportional to the speed of light.
Time is measured by the lesser speeds and the processes that occur at the lesser speeds. If the speed of light relative to the spaceship is slowed, and if the lesser speeds are slowed as well, then the processes that usually occur when the spaceship is at rest relative the ether, are slowed. This means that the passage of our measured time is slowed. When the spaceship is moving relative to the surrounding ether, part of the velocity used for the necessary processes must be expended in traversing the relative motion of the ether. This is similar to an aircraft expending part of its airspeed to remain on course when encountering a crosswind. The result is a lessening of the speeds of normal activities which is the same as slowing the passage of measured time because time is measured by motion (one rotation of the earth is 24 hours, one revolution of the moon is one month, one revolution of the earth/moon system is one year, etc.).
However absolute time, which is called duration, remains the same regardless.
Back to Fitzgerald, Lorentz, Einstein, and Relativity
Back to Lorentz Factor Derivation
Electromagnetic radiation (light) is a transverse wave moving out along the path of the inflowing ether of an electron. Although it moves outward along a radial at the speed we call "c", the actual reactive speed of the ether is that of the resultant ether flow. Where the instantaneous velocity of the ether is greatest, just before it turns at right angles into the past, the speed of the ether is the product of the square root of two and "c", "21/2c". This is the actual reactive speed of the ether. However, all communication from one part of matter to another is still at a maximum velocity of "c".
All of the chemical, nuclear, biological, cosmic, and other reactions which cause change in this universe of ours are proportional to the maximum speed of communication within the ether which is "c". So "c" must always be the maximum resultant vector of motion within our universe. As we continue, you will see why this is so important.
Imagine a right triangle with one side being our instantaneous velocity vector of motion relative to the ether. We can label this "v". The other side is the velocity vector for change/motion/time passage. We can label this "t" for time or "vp" (maximum velocity for movement perpendicular to our relative ether velocity). The hypotenuse is the velocity vector of communication within our universe. We have already labeled this "c". The hypotenuse is the resultant and must always be a constant which is the speed of light. It must always be a constant because the speed for communication within the ether is a function of the reactive speed of the ether.
When we are at rest relative to the ether, the hypotenuse "c" rotates and is superimposed upon "t", "v" has become zero, and time will pass at its fastest pace. The reactions which define time (change) through movement in our immediate neighborhood are moving at their maximum possible speed. If we were to accelerate to an instantaneous velocity relative to the ether that is equal to "c" (this is only theoretical), the hypotenuse rotates to be superimposed upon "v", "t" becomes zero, and time (change) fails to happen. We say that time approaches zero as velocity approaches the speed of light relative only to the ether.
Between the two foregoing extremes, time usually passes between zero and its fastest pace. In a gravity funnel such as ours, the relative incoming ether instantanteous velocity is not very high (about seven miles per second). Our time passes at slightly less than its maximum possible pace. At the surface of a large sun, the pace of time passage is much slower. At the fringes of black hole, the relative incoming ether instantaneous velocity is equal to "c". If one could exist there without falling into the hole, the rate at which time passes would have become zero.
The velocity of a space vehicle through the ether affects the passage of time in the same manner. The math involved is essentially identical to that of Einstein's relativity except that it is more easily derived and is based upon a much simpler premise. Einstein based his work upon the transforms (equations) of Lorentz. These transforms are the result of working with the Pythagorean theorem which is a fundamental principle for our universe caused by or perhaps defining the conservation of energy and the nature of our dimensions.
Using the Pythagorean theorem with our right triangle whose sides are
"v" and "vp", and a hypotenuse of "c":
v2 + vp2 = c2
Re-writing the equation:
vp2 = c2 - v2
Factoring our c2 from the right side:
vp2 = [(c2/c2) - (v2/c2)]c2
Which becomes: vp2 = c2[1-(v2/c2)]
Taking the square root of both sides:
vp = c[1-(v/c)2]1/2
Let "T" equal the time interval when a space vehicle is in motion relative to the ether. Let "T0" equal the time interval when the space vehicle is at rest relative to the ether. Let "d" equal distance.
Then vp = c = d/T0 when the space vehicle is at rest, and
vp = d/T when the the space vehicle is in motion.
"d" remains constant.
By substitution, the equation becomes:
d/T = (d/T0)[1 - (v/c)2]1/2
Dividing both sides by d and inverting:
T = T0/[1 - (v/c)2]1/2
This is the same equation used for time dilation in Einstein's relativity except for one thing. Here, "T" and "T0" are intervals of time. As "v" approaches "c", "[1 - (v/c)2]1/2" approaches zero, and "T0/[1 - (v/c)2]1/2" approaches infinity which means "T" approaches infinity. "T" is the amount of time necessary for movement to happen. When it approaches infinity, movement approaches zero. When movement approaches zero, the passage of time approaches zero, as does "delta t", as time is called in Einstein's relativity. Einstein's equation is:
delta t' = delta t [1 - (v/c)2]1/2
For those of you who have forgotten your algebra, an exponent of 1/2 for a quantity is the same as having that quantity inside a square root sign. So:
T = T0/[1 - (v/c)2]1/2 in nether theory, in which "T" approaches infinity as "v" increases, is the same as
delta t' = delta t [1 - (v/c)2]1/2 in Einstein's relativity, in which "delta t' " approaches zero as "v" increases.
Note that in the first equation above, " [1 - (v/c)2]1/2 " is dividing "T0" and in the second equation it is multiplying "delta t".
To explain further, "T" and "T0 are measures of time while "delta t' " and
"delta t" are passages of time. "d/T" means a constant distance divided by a variable
time interval. The time interval "T" approaches infinity as "v" increases,
so that distance "d" is not traversed as quickly as would be the case when "T" is
shorter. This means that activities which measure the passage of time and are subject
to time passage do not occur very quickly, and in fact, would cease to occur at all if
"v" were to reach the speed of light.
Further Explanation (added 11/13/05)
When an object moves within our three dimensional space, it moves in a particular direction which is its dimension of forward motion. There are two planes perpendicular to its dimension of forward motion. One plane is touching the forward-most point of the object, and the other is touching the rear-most point of the object. In between these planes is where the existence of the object must be. Between these two planes, any molecule, atom, or subatomic entity moving forward must eventually move backward, and any molecule, atom, subatomic entity moving backward must eventually move forward. Otherwise, the object would not remain intact.
We are three-dimensional beings in a three-dimensional universe, all moving through a fourth dimension which is time. Without movement in all three of our space dimensions, measured time cannot exist. This means that motion parallel to two planes and perpendicular to the object's direction of travel is necessary for measured time to exist. When the maximum motion possible is reduced parallel to these two planes, the speed of the passage of time is reduced.
Motion parallel to the planes must be accomplished by "crabbing" into the ether "wind" that is relative to the object. This slows the parallel motion and slows the passage of time. For conscious beings within the object (like travelers in a spaceship), the passage of time does not seem to have slowed. But for observers outside the object, the passage of time within the object will be seen as having been slowed according to the the following equation.
T = T0/[1 - (v/c)2]1/2
Motion of subatomic entities between the two planes is necessary for time to
exist. Unless there is motion within these dimensions, there are no chemical,
nuclear, electrical, biological, or other processes. Without such processes,
there is no measurable time.
So time dilation is a reality, but has to do with velocity relative to the ether. The presence of ether automatically causes the existence of time dilation. There cannot be one without the other.
For advanced relativistic effects go to Relativity.
There is something we all need to remember. The correct conclusions and the correct equations can sometimes be derived from incorrect assumptions and incorrect precepts. Einstein may not have been precisely correct with his relativity, but much of what he discovered by means of it is correct. This is true of time dilation and his mass/energy equivalency equation.
Science News may be the best news publication for the various sciences to be printed in English. It is extremely comprehensive with only occasional errors, written for the educated layman and, for the most part, seems to be fairly objective in its reporting. In the April 22, 2006, issue of Science News is a two-page article with the title To Leap or Not to Leap. This article is about a debate regarding solutions to problems in time keeping. In it we find the following points among others.
1. Our most accurate clocks today are based upon the vibrations of electrons within cesium atoms and are accurate to a tenth of a billionth of a second per day. In the future, clocks based upon the vibrations of laser-cooled atoms and ions are expected to attain an accuracy or one part in 1018.
2. The earth is slowing in its rate of rotation, mainly due to tidal forces. The rate of slowing is not constant because matter descending from higher elevations tends to make the earth speed up. Water may flow from glacier ice melting and from mountain lakes - and water brings soil and debris down with it. On the other hand, climate change may cause more ice or water to form at higher elevations, tending to slow the earth's rotation. The effects of the forces contributing to the change in the earth's rotation cannot be accurately predicted.
3. The international authority on time keeping has added one second to the time standard (a worldwide network of atomic clocks) twenty-three times since 1972. In the computer age, this practice of adding one second can be a real problem.
4. When the earth has actually slowed sufficiently for the clocks to be reset, some people (such as those dealing with computer software) would prefer that the resetting be done very infrequently or not at all. Other people (such as astronomers) would prefer that resetting be done whenever any slowing is noticed.
5. Problems exist in determining a standard time because:
A. Gravity is less at higher altitudes and this means that time dilation is less at higher altitudes - so the correct time depends upon the altitude (this has been confirmed beyond doubt).
B. Today, the altitude of a clock must be known within a few meters for one to reset it correctly after a short period of time. For the more accurate clocks of the near future, the altitude must be known to within a centimeter.
C. Altitudes cannot be measured easily because sea level varies with both time and location, and we have been using a geoid (a hypothetical surface that approximates the size and shape of the earth) rather than sea level to create a standard. The geoid is probably the best solution we have at this time, but even it changes with the redistribution of water on this planet.
It appears that there are very few true constants (if any) in the universe.
The Unification of Time Dilation
Einstein came up with time dilation one from the velocity of one reference frame to another. Later, he arrived at time dilation two due to gravity. The actual connection between the two types of time dilation was not apparent at the time he published his general theory of relativity (1915). Ether did not exist for most physicists at that time - those who thought that it existed were smothered by the majority. Without the existence of ether there could not be ether relative velocity. Without ether relative velocity, there could be no inflowing relative ether velocity. Without inflowing relative ether velocity there could be no workable concept of gravity, All this meant that no obvious unification of time dilation one and time dilation two could be established.
Nether theory was the next step. It aided in re-establishing the existence of a form of ether (called nether or dynamic ether). This made it possible to unify the two types of time dilation by showing the cause of both to be relative nether velocity. It showed the cause of time dilation one to be movement of something (like a spaceship) moving through nether, and it showed the cause of time dilation two to be nether moving past something (as is the case with gravity).
For example, those who are moving through nether in a spaceship experience time dilation one due to their velocity relative to the nether. But when the spaceship is parked on a planet, its occupants experience time dilation two because nether is moving past the parked spaceship which is nether velocity relative to the spaceship. If the spaceship is in orbit, its occupants experience both types of time dilation which can be be lumped into one and calculated as simply relative nether velocity (because the velocity of nether relative to the spaceship is the same as saying the velocity of the spaceship relative to the nether - velocity is a relative term as per paragraph four of Newton's Scholium and Einstein's relativity). If the spaceship were to be "parked" in space so that the surrounding nether had absolutely no motion relative to the spaceship, there would be absolutely no time dilation.
In both types of time dilation, the cause is relative nether velocity. The Lorentz factor, ( 1 / [1 - (v/c)2]1/2 ), is the mathematical solution in both Nether and Einsteinian relativity.
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