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The Pauli Exclusion Principle & Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle


Quantum mechanics assumes that everything is essentially made of wave forms.   In that sense, Quantum mechanics is almost diametrically opposed to particle physics which assumes that everything is essentially particulate in nature - even photons.   Consequently, the two do not agree in many areas.   Nether theory shows that everything is composed of nether (dynamic ether), that matter is vortices of nether or combinations of such vortices, and energy is merely waves within the nether.

In quantum mechanics there are electron states for an atom.   The principle quantum number which is related to the distance from the nucleus is n.   The orbital quantum number which is related to orbital angular momentum is l.   The orbital magnetic quantum number which is related to orbital angular momentum (z component) is ml.   The spin magnetic quantum number which is related to spin angular momentum (z component) is ms.

All electron states with the same value of n form a shell.   There are 2n2 states in a shell.   All states with the same values of the same quantum numbers n and l form a subshell.   All states in a subshell have the same energy.

[When looking at the periodic table, you will note that there seems to be a discrepancy in quantum theory.   There are 2 electrons for first "orbit" where n = 1.   This makes sense because 2n2 is then 2(12) which is, indeed, 2.   There are 8 electrons in the second "orbit" where n = 2.   This also makes sense because 2n2 is then 2(22) which is, indeed, 8.   There are 8 electrons for third "orbit" where one would expect that n = 3.   This does not makes sense because 2n2 would then be 2(32) which is 18 - and 18 does not occur until the fourth orbit.   There are 18 electrons in the fourth "orbit" where we would expect n to equal 4, but 2(42) is 32 - which does not occur till the sixth "orbit".   But remember there are subshells in quantum theory and this means that a shell is divided.   So the second and third "orbits" in the periodic table form one shell where n = 2; the fourth and fifth form the next shell where n = 3; and the fifth, sixth, and seventh form the third shell where n = 4.]

For a given value of l, there are 2l + 1 possible values for orbital magnetic quantum number ml.   For each ml, there are 2 possible values for the spin quantum number ms.   Thus, there are 2(2l + 1) states in a subshell.

According to the Pauli exclusion principle, no two electrons in an atom can have the same set of quantum numbers n, l, ml, and ms.

A quantum state is that characterized by a set of quantum numbers.   If any quantum number is different for any two electrons, they are said to have different quantum states.   So a shorter way of stating the Pauli exclusion principle is to say no two electrons in an atom can have the same quantum state.   At this time, I have no problem with the Pauli exclusion principle - in fact, where each electron is a vortex with influence extending infinitely outward, the chances of any electron at such close quarters having the same quantum state is virtually impossible just by looking at the atom.

Again in quantum mechanics, we have Heisenberg's uncertainty principle which states that the position and momentum of a particle do not have well-defined values simultaneously.   There is uncertainty in their measured values such that the product of the variations in each is equal to or greater than Planck's unit of action.

Great care has been taken to show that this does not mean that we are simply unable to see both values due to the inadequacies of our measuring equipment.   Supposedly, if we could be God and see the particle in motion, we would still discover that the particle has no well-defined values simultaneously.   Quantum mechanics is based upon wave theory that is actually using probability theory and statistics to come up with something called a "wave function".

In nether theory, we see that a vorticle's (particle's) momentum is based upon velocity relative to something else.   Therefore, the momentum varies according to whatever frame of reference is being used - and thus the term "momentum" is virtually useless and has no real meaning.   Likewise, the position is also based upon a certain frame of reference.   If we were to use a particular frame of reference, we would still discover that our measuring equipment would (1) be unable to measure the position or the momentum exactly, and (2) the measuring method would be such as to upset the vorticle (particle) so that its position and momentum would change.   However, nether theory indicates that were a particular frame of reference to be used by God, who could see the position and momentum of a vorticle exactly at a given instant, the two values would be there simultaneously for the particular instant in question.   Note that "instant" indicates that the position and momentum must be known in relation to all four dimensions - and measured time is not exactly the same between any two adjacent points in the universe.   In other words, in nether theory, Heisenberg's uncertainty principle is essentially correct.

In the August 25, 2007, issue of Science News, is short article called Crueltyfree - Counting photons without killing them.   Some quotes from it follow.

Physicists have found a way to count photons as the zip along without destroying them.   The researchers say that the technique will enable scientists to probe quantum effects that so far have been the subject only of speculation.

...detecting light has long been synonymous with absorbing photons...typically, the photons cease to exist...Physicists can count single photons - but they can't count and keep them.

...the team shot rubidium atoms one by one across the photons' path.   The atoms were in a highly excited state in which their electrons were especially sensitive to the photons' electric fields.   The electrons responded with a shift in the timing of their orbits, essentially acting as the hands of microscopic clocks.   The amount of shift was proportional to the number of photons between the two mirrors.

Quantum uncertainty dictates that the number of photons could not be well defined at the start of the experiment... But after the researchers had shot about 100 atoms through the chamber - gaining information and reducing uncertainty - the number of photons converged to a definite value.   Subsequent measurements confirmed that count...

While the photons didn't die, their lives would never be the same.   In any experiment, measuring one physical quantity with increasing precision leads to increased fuzziness in a related quantity.   In this case, obtaining a precise count of the photons came at the expense of losing knowledge about the relative timing, or phase, of the photons' wavelike fluctuations.   [Bear in mind that in accepted physics, the photon is an entity unto itself with wavelike fluctuations - rather than a photon being a series of waves.]

...The experiment highlights a little-known aspect of quantum physics: When quantities go from a fuzzy state to one with a precise value, the transition can take place in small increments.   In that way measurements can extract partial information...   Haroche says that his team's setup could be a means for testing new quantum phenomena in which photons occupy multiple states simultaneously...

The last sentence illustrates what I consider to be an illusion found in quantum mechanics that is largely the result of misunderstanding the nature of photons included with some wishful thinking.

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