This is chapter three from Book Four - Light of Behind Light's Illusion.
Energy has the usual units of "mv2" and "mad", where "m" is mass, "a" is acceleration, "d/t" is distance/time and equals "v" which is velocity, and "f " is frequency which equals "n/t" which is number of events per second. Therefore, dimensionally,
hf = h(n/t) = mv2 = mv(d/t)n.
"n" is simply an integer. "n/t" is the frequency. So "h" has units of "mvd".
Photons have an energy of "mv2" and a momentum of "mv" in basic units of mass,
velocity, distance, and time.
The electron hole brings nether into the 4th dimension. The nether forms a vortex as it enters the hole on the side called its "mouth". This hole appears as a circle in our three-dimensional space and, speaking geometrically, is in a plane which will be called the "plane of the hole". The mouth of the hole can point in any direction found within our three-dimensionsal space because it is hole into a dimension that is at 90 degrees to each and all of our three spatial dimensions.
A straight line drawn from the electron center through a point outside is called a "radial".
A line that is perpendicular to the radial and in the same plane as the electron hole is called a tangent.
The electron is a tiny gravity funnel. However, at the level of the electron, gravity is very small in proportion to the other forces. The vortex called the electron is composed of an inward nether flow which is, at any point, 45 degrees from a radial drawn through that point. This inward nether flow is what has been termed "charge". The inward radial vector of this flow is termed "micro-gravity". The tangential vector of this flow is the cause of electromagnetic radiation.
The flow into a micro-gravity funnel is composed elements of nether coming from an infinite distance to the hole where they turn 90 degrees into the 4th dimension. Each element begins widely expanded and compresses as it approaches the hole. It is like a long strand with a square cross-section that is infinitely small near the hole and quite large at a far distance from the hole. It is actually an element of nether flow into the hole and moves inward slowly when far away and at the speed of light near the hole. So, as it nears the hole it compresses in its two tangential directions and expands in its radial direction. It does not exist except as a means of helping the mind to understand the behavior of the nether moving toward and into the hole. There are an infinite number of these elements moving toward and into the hole all the time. They are analogous to drops of water in an ocean in that they are part of the nether ocean, but have no boundary to maintain their integrity as a separate unit.
Often, people wonder why these elements of nether moving into the holes of subatomic entities do not empty our space of nether. They are doing so. However, each electron hole has a radius that is about 10 -57 meter. According to most textbooks on physics, the radius of a typical atomic nucleus is approximately 10 -15 meter, and the radius of a typical atom is approximately 10 -10 meter. This leaves an ocean of nether between the electron holes in a typical atom that is 10 47 times as large as the radius of the electron hole. The distances between atoms is even greater than the distances within atoms.
Therefore, the electron resides in a sea of nether in which it and the nearest neighboring electrons, protons, and neutrons in a typical atom have approximately
100,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 times more of this ocean of nether between them proportionately than is between our sun and its nearest neighbor in our galaxy. There is much more danger of us losing nether pressure too quickly via our accelerating expansion of the universe than what little leaks out through the holes.
The force of micro-gravity (gravity of the single electron) is very small as is that of
the single proton and the single neutron. The other forces at this level are also small
but greater than the force of micro-gravity. However, when large groups of subatomic
entities come together as is the case with a planet or sun, their gravities unite into
a very large force while the other forces oppose one another and average out to essentially
Rotation, Revolution, and Precession
Light is caused by vibrating electrons. A single natural photon, one that is not limited by our one-second rule, is the result of multiple comings and goings of one electron. First the electron moves in one direction. Then it reverses itself to move in the opposite direction. It reverses itself again and continues to do so until it has lost the energy that initially prompted it to move. At the end of each of its little journeys back and forth, it rotates to point its mouth in the new direction of travel.
Electrons move in the direction that their mouths are pointed. If aimed in a different direction, they turn their mouths toward the new direction of travel. Usually, their mouths pull them along because of the inertia of the incoming nether. It is more energy efficient to move in the average direction of the incoming nether.
Rotation refers to the aiming of its mouth in a different direction. This will usually be a rotation that is 180 degrees that occurs when the mouth reverses its direction at the turn-around point within a light-producing vibration.
Revolution refers to the circular movement of the vortex. Each revolution of the incoming nether is one 360 degree turn around the electron center.
The nether is revolving inward at the speed of light at the Schwartzschild radius for the electron.
Black Holes - The Schwarzschild Radius
Our Viewing Orientation
A transparent vortex and its salient features are very difficult to portray on a two-dimensional piece of paper or on a computer screen. The only way to see it is the mind's eye. To accomplish this, a viewing orientation is necessary. So, let us assume that the electron is moving upward with its mouth on top.
If one were to view the electron from the "front"
(the top) as it moves, the
revolutions would appear to be clockwise, according to convention. When
the electron rotates to move in the opposite direction, one would be
viewing it from the "rear". From the rear, the revolutions appear to be
counter-clockwise. Viewed from the side, as most of the incoming nether
would "see" it, the incoming nether would be first moving to the left.
When the electron rotates, the new direction would be to the right.
The electron rotation at this turn-around point causes the incoming nether
to reverse the direction of its revolution. So the nether would be moving
first along a tangential vector to the left at the speed of light. During
the rotation, this vector reverses itself so that the nether is moving
along the same tangential vector which now is pointed to the right.
Specifics of a Rotation
The rotation occurs, in all cases, within a span of time that we have labeled "ts" - which is approximately 4.0659x10-22 second. This is a fraction of a second that looks about like this:
which is a very short time for us, but a very long time for an electron.
Within this span of time, at the electron Schwartzschild radius, there have been 1.4339x1043 revolutions of the incoming nether. This number looks like this:
which seems very large to us, and yet is quite small for the electron.
Bear in mind, the circumference of the electron at this radius is very small and something moving at the speed of light can go around it this many times in the span of time we call "ts".
During the rotation, the electron mouth is acting like a gyroscope, its mouth direction describing a circle - much like a spinning top which is leaning over but not falling very rapidly. There is precession as is the case with any gyroscope, and there is a slowing of the rotation because of the gyroscopic tendency to remain pointed in one direction. It is this slowing of the rotation due to gyroscopic action that causes the electron to take so long to fully reverse direction.
The many revolutions of nether during a rotation are actually one length, "s", of each of the elements of nether which are entering the electron at the Schwartzschild radius. The length we call "s" begins as the electron starts to rotate and ends when the rotation is complete. It is one length because the vortex is composed of a spiral in which all of the coils are connected. The spiral is pointed inward at 45 degrees and is moving at a velocity of "(2 1/2)c". But the tangential vector, which is the cause of each light half-wave, has a velocity with a magnitude of "c", the speed of light.
The Schwartzschild radius is the radius at which the magnitude of the inward radial velocity
is "c". A vortex has an inward radial velocity vector that is equal to the
tangential velocity vector at any particular point. Therefore, at the
Schwartzschild radius the magnitude of the tangential velocity vector also is "c".
It is best to measure one coil of "s" at the Schwartzschild radius because the
velocity of the tangential vector is known there and the length of one tangential
vector of a coil of a nether element will be equal to "(2pi)rs" where
"rs" is the Schwartzschild radius (1.352956x10 -57 meter).
The Side Vector Change
During the rotation, the sideward vector of the incoming nether (the vector one sees when looking at one side with the mouth pointed upward), moves from the left in a clockwise rotation until it points to the right. The incoming nether that was moving to the left must follow this path so that its sideward velocity (the vector that is sideward only) first has a magnitude of lightspeed aimed to the left. This magnitude is reduced to zero as the nether motion turns upward, and is gradually re-established at lightspeed but to the right. This shifting from left to right causes an "acceleration" which varies as a part of a sine wave but averages to be "2c/ts".
An acceleration of "2c/ts" seems to be an impossibility. If it were a true acceleration it would be impossible. However, it is not a sudden change in velocity. Instead, the velocity remains constant at the radius and is re-directed a little bit at a time as the electron rotates. It is not the same nether that is being accelerated, but a new length of nether with each small re-direction, that has a slightly different vector (direction) than the one before it and the one after it. If you were to take a garden hose and aim its stream of water in one direction and then turn it slowly so that the stream went in the opposite direction, you would not be causing any water to be accelerated from the first direction to the second. It would be different water moving in each direction. In the case of the electron, it is taking in water like the garden hose working in reverse, but the principle of different water still applies.
Perhaps it still appears that this sideward "acceleration" is too great. If so, a further
examination is advisable. The circumference at the Schwartzschild radius is
"(2pi)rs" which is about 8.5x10 -57 meter. Half of this circumference
is the distance that is rotated in time "ts". This is
a distance of 4.25x10 -57 meter. The number of nether revolutions entering
radius "rs" in this time is about 1.4x10 43. The distance that
one element of nether would be shifted along the half-circumference
in the time for one revolution is 4.25x10 -57/1.4x10 43. This
is about 3x10 -100 meter in time "ts/n". The velocity of
shift is about 1.05x10 -35 meter/second. This is rather slow when compared
to the speed of light around the circumference.
The Sending Mathematics
The photon, the wave, and the half-wave of light are constant regardless of their distances from the light source. This is an experimental fact. The energy from a half-wave is the same for all frequencies of electromagnetic energy. However, the half-wave productions are separated by periods of electron travel. If the time period of electron travel between half-wave productions (electron rotations) is long, the light wavelength will be long and the frequency will be low. If the time period of electron travel between half-wave productions is short, the light wavelength will be short and the frequency will be high.
Hallwachs and Hertz discovered that the energy of the limited photon (the photon of one second - which is a man-made creation) is "hf " where "h" is Planck's constant and "f " is frequency. This is the energy of the photon. The energy of the wave is "h/t", because when "f " is "1", it equals "1/t". The half-wave energy is "h/2t". This is the product of force and distance over which the force operates, "Fd".
F = ma
where "m" is mass and "a" is acceleration.
So E = Fd = mad = hf/2 for the light half-wave.
In the case of the rotating electron, the electron "rest mass" is "M/t" or "m", and the Mass that passes into the electron during the time of rotation is "m(ts)" or "ms". This is not the one-second flow-rate of nether into the electron center that constitutes electron mass. Instead it is a tiny fraction of that one-second flow rate. "m(ts)" is the Mass that will be used in the equation for the energy of a light half-wave.
The change in incoming velocity at the Schwartzschild radius (the apparent acceleration) is "2c/ts", caused by the shifting sideward nether vector previously explained, and the distance is a length termed "d" which is half of "S", the distance over which the acceleration manifests. The change manifests relatively slowly and in increments over the length "S" of incoming nether that forms coils just outside the radius "rs". The distance "d" equals only half of "S" because the first part of the inflow during time "ts", is moving zero distance before entering the radius rs and the last to enter is moving the full distance "S". The average for all of the lengths of "S" is "S/2" which is also the length of the distance that creates the energy and momentum that are the light half-waves.
In other words, the coils are elements of nether. Each element extends outward in a spiral from the electron and is being pulled into it. Each spiral revolution of an element is connected to every other spiral revolution of the same element. The easiest place to measure the length of each revolution is at radius "rs". So the length "S" is the length of incoming nether in each element during time "ts". This total length is part of a measure of Mass that aids in effecting the change that is the outward-moving light half-wave.
The total length of the coils (revolutions) that is termed "S" is the length of nether inflow that occurs while the electron is rotating and during which the "acceleration" "2c/ts" is occurring along its length - but not before and not after its length along each nether element. The total length "S" becomes a two dimensional entity as its total forms a width of coils in addition to the the length of the circumference at "rs". And each of these revolutions, the total "S", has an added dimension formed by "m(ts)" which is "M(ts/t)". This added dimension is the total of all the elements that move into the boundary formed at radius "rs" in time "ts".
At the electron Schwartzschild radius, the sideward velocity vector of the nether, moves from "c" to the left to "c" to the right during one electron rotation, for a total change in velocity that is "2c". Relative to an element of nether at the beginning of the rotation, the velocity is zero and accelerates to "2c". Relative to the "centerline" where the vector that is "c" points upward, the difference is "c".
The tangential velocity of the nether during the rotation at radius "rs" is "c". The apparent distance traveled at this average velocity during the time of the rotation would be "cts" which is "S". "S" is also equal to "n(2pi)rs" where "n" is the number of revolutions of incoming nether in time "ts".
At the electron Schwartzschild radius:
Electron mass = m = M/t, mass in time ts = ms = [m(ts)], acceleration = 2c/ts, d = S/2 = n(2pi)rs/2 = cts/2
hf/2 = mad = [m(ts)](2c/ts)d.
The above equation can be simplified.
hf/2 = h/(2t) = m(2c)d
This equation can be divided by two and modified to show the acceleration at either side of zero that is a quarter-wave.
h/(4t) = mcd
h/(4t) = M(c/t)d
This variation shows the true acceleration that is "c/t".
Solving for h:
h = 4mcd
Solving for d
d = h/(4mc)
d = 6.1862x10 -14 meter.
d = (2pi)rsn/2
n = 2d/[(2pi)rs] = d/[(pi)rs]
n = 1.4554x10 43 revolutions
Going back to the energy equation:
h/(2t) = m(2c)d,
we can solve for energy
h/(2t) = m(2c)d = 3.37885x10 -35
If we double this value, we have Planck's constant.
h = 6.757704x10 -35 meter kilogram second
The half-wave energy and momentum are each formed from two mirror images that average to zero. From the viewpoint of the observer, one half of the half-wave arrives followed by the other half of the half-wave. The two halves work from velocities that oppose one another. The energies and the momentums must be calculated from one side of the centerline (where the observer resides) and then doubled to arrive at the correct answer. If we use the usual energy equation, we must take one side at a time.
E = (1/2)mv2 for half of the half-wave:
[h/(2t)]/2 = (1/2)[m(ts)]c2
h/(4t) = (1/2)[m(ts)]c2
h/(2t) = [m(ts)]c2
h/(2t) = [m(ts)]c2 = 3.37885x10 -35 meter kilogram
From the first energy equation:
h/(2t) = [m(ts)](2c/ts)d
h/(2t) = [m(ts)](2c/ts)(cts/2)
h/(2t) = [m(ts)]c2
Which matches the one in bold above. This is as it should be and makes a good cross-check.
What has been found is the energy in the amount of Mass entering the hole in time "ts". In other words, it is the fraction of the electron rest mass/energy that would exist if we were to use the time "ts" instead of one second to measure things.
The momentum should be the energy divided by "c".
h/(2ct) = [m(ts)]c2/c = [m(ts)]c = msc
which is correct for the two halves of the half-wave.
h/(2ct) = 1.12707x10 -43 kilogram meter/second
For a single full wave:
hf = h(1/t) = h/t = 2msc2
hf/c = 2msc
Math Moving Outward
As the distance from the electron center increases, the coils become longer and the acceleration along the length of each coil moves outward along this expanding length. At the Schwartzschild radius, "rs", "S" was equal to "(2pi)rsn" where "n" is the number of revolutions of nether passing through that radius during one electron rotation. At most distances greater than rs, "S" becomes a length along a single coil - because the coils are longer here, and all of the coils of "n" are connected to become one length which is a fraction of single long coil's length.
Because the electron is a small gravity funnel, the mass of nether entering each funnel cross-section is the same for all cross-sections, regardless of their distance from the electron center. The nether "Mass" of each coil will be less dense at greater distances from the electron center, but the total inflow of nether will remain constant. So the value of "cts/2" as a distance for a mass to be moved by an acceleration, will remain constant as a distance, "d", which tells how far a certain mass of nether is accelerated. And the mass being accelerated will remain the same.
In the equation "hf/2 = [m(ts)](2c/ts)(cts/2)", "m" is the flow of Mass that constitutes a volume of Mass passing through a gravity funnel cross-section during one second. This is the mass of the electron which is a flow of "M/t". Had we chosen to use a different measure of time, the value for mass would change accordingly. But each mass is correctly relative to other masses as long as we use the same measure of time for every one of them.
The mass we know for the acceleration in one half-wave is measured with a different time which is expressed here as "ts". It remains the same at all distances from the electron center and is the measure of "[m(ts)]" accelerated tangentially a distance "d".
As the acceleration half-wave moves outward, "[m(ts)]" remains the same because the electron is a small gravity funnel and no Mass can move in or out of it from the sides. In fact, it has no sides. At every spherical cross-section, Mass flow, "m", is the same also. The only difference is in the time intervals used. For the electron rest mass,
m = 9.10956x10 -31.
For Mass used in time "ts"
m(ts) = 3.7595x10 -52.
"2c/(ts)" remains the same.
We know from experimental evidence that "hf " will remain the same. Therefore, "d" which is "cts/2" will remain the same. Note that "cts/2" is not a velocity, but a distance.
d = cts/2 = 6.186167x10 -14 meter
The half-wave equation is based upon a mass that is created from the tiny "ts" rather than a "t" of one second duration. This little mass is equal to "m(ts)".
What has occurred during the passage of the half-wave is an energy/momentum that can be transferred to a resonant receiving electron. It is also a shift from the tangential part of the inward flow in one direction to that in the opposite direction. The tangential velocity from this shift does not vary according to the density of the nether through which the half-wave moves if the density is the result of the inward flow of nether to the electron center.
The incremental energy in one revolution of incoming nether is 2.3216x10 -78 kilogram meter2/second2. This energy passes a point in space in 2.8356x10 -65 second. As it passes, it moves distance of 1.0573x10 -57 meter.
The velocity imparted to one electron mass of nether in time "t" is the same energy imparted to the small mass of nether in time ts because
h/(2t) = ms(2c/ts)d = m(2c)d = M(2c/t)d
This energy is caused by the acceleration "2c/t" in the case of the complete half-wave and "c/t" in the case of the "half" half-wave. Momentum is also a function of which is being experienced. The observer will find that "one side" of the half wave is being found because the tangential velocity varies from "c" in one direction to "c" in the opposite direction. If it were possible to be riding upon a nether element entering at radius rs the rider would find that the momentum had increased two-fold over what he knew as an outside observer.
There is no friction within the nether and the energy and momentum in the
half-wave, wave, and photon will remain the same until it is discharged at a
The Compton Effect
Compton divided "hf " by "c" and obtained the correct results. The momentum found
was that of the acceleration waves relative to the observer or to the electrons
that were in the path of the waves. This is as it should have been. Bear in mind
that this is half what the total change in momentum is with a complete wave passage.
The Shape of the Half-Wave
The "acceleration" of "2c/t" moving outward at the speed of light is what turns a receiving electron in the proper direction
The nether is energy-conscious. It prefers to act in a manner that uses the least energy whenever is must act differently. Once it is in motion, it prefers to remain in motion unless a force of some kind acts upon it. The nether inflow at any point of a gravity funnel cross-section is a flow that extends from infinity to the matter that is pulling it in. This inflow is not altered unless a force other than the pulling matter is introduced to it. So, ideally, an element of nether streams toward the matter center at an increasing velocity and with an increasing density. The same element, unadulterated by other elements, that began its journey to the matter center is the one that arrives at the matter center, but it is greatly compressed upon arrival.
The electron has many such elements or streams moving into it and they tend to maintain their integrity as the electron moves from one place to another (out of energy-consciousness). They form a flexible disc with the electron hole at the center. The disc is actually infinite in diameter with elements of nether moving toward the center at a velocity that is nearly zero at the circumference, and at the speed of light at the electron hole. In between, the speeds inward are between these extremes.
Logically, the disc would have a "thickness" caused by the vortex itself having layers. At the rotations, electrons slowing down and speeding up would create a type of "thickness" to the light half-wave. For an electron moving upward, the slowing would cause the wave to begin moving outward at the bottom sooner than at the top, and as the electron starts down again, the bottom would move out last of all. Looking at the half-wave from a sectional view at the side, one would see an inverted "V" shape. The subsequent rotation from the same electron moving downward and then upward would have a sectional view of the half-wave resembling an upright "V".  .;
Repeat Explanation in Different Words
At the the electron center or more correctly the Schartzschild radius for the electron (about 10-57 meter), the nether is moving tangentially at the speed of light. The electron creates light by vibratory motion. It moves in one direction until it is stopped by the other electrons in that orbit of the atom. After it is stopped, it bounces backward which causes its mouth to re-orient and point in the opposite direction. During its re-orientation, its direction change causes a half-wave of transverse nether acceleration to move outward at the speed of light.
The acceleration wave is caused by the electron reversing direction and thus reversing the direction of the vector of tangential nether movement which has a velocity of "c". Each time this direction change occurs, a half-wave moves outward. First, there is a vector at lightspeed to the right, and next it is to the left. The overall change in velocity from right to left is twice the speed of light, so the average velocity, which is one half of the total change, is "c".
The tangential acceleration moves outward in a circle like a ripple on a pond. It has a magnitude of "2c/t" and accelerates the mass of the circle along the circumference with each passing of a half-wave, first in one direction and then in the opposite direction. The acceleration takes place in about 4x10-22 second (called ts). So the distance, "d", that each circumference is accelerated is the product of the average velocity, "c", and ts divided by two (because only half of the length of "S" is the average distance).
The above creates a half-wave energy of mad = ms (2c/ts)(cts/2). The energy of the half-wave using Hallwach's and Hertz' findings is "hf/2". The frequency for single wave or half-wave is "1/t". Thus,
hf/2 = h/(2t) = mad = ms (2c/ts)(cts/2).
The nether Mass inflow at each distance from the electron center is the same because of the funnel effect (no Mass in and no Mass out of the funnel except at the top and the bottom). The transverse "acceleration", "2c/ts" is the same at all distances from the electron center. Relative to the nether motion, the average velocity is "c" during the acceleration, and the final velocities are always "c" relative to the "zero point" or "centerline". The acceleration passes every inflow cross-section in the same length of time, "ts".
Therefore, the energy of the half-wave, the full wave, and each photon is constant as they move outward. In the foregoing equations for the half-wave, mass and acceleration are constant, which means that "d" is also constant because it is the distance that the acceleration pushes the mass. Therefore, "hf " is constant for all distances from the source of the photon, which is as it should be according to experimental evidence - and is the reason why physicists considered the photon to be a particle for so long.
From the foregoing, it is evident that half of Planck's constant is equal to the mass of one circumference times the speed of light times the tangential distance moved during the acceleration of one circumference. Twice the frequency is the number of changes in velocity in each second. Planck's constant and frequency multiplied together make energy. But once again this explanation is oversimplified.
An electron changes direction as it creates a light wave. It goes from one direction to the opposite direction. The electron, by changing directions, alters the stream of incoming nether tangentially while allowing it to remain essentially the same radially. The electron center (explained elsewhere) is basically a hemisphere, but when it is vibrating, the hemisphere is no longer supreme. The vibration causes the center to act as if it were a cylinder, with the nether stream coming in from all sides of the cylinder, most of the time, and with very little coming in from the top or bottom.
Think of cutting a ball in half, orienting half of the ball with its pole upward, and moving this half upward. Notice that it creates a cylinder with its motion. The nether from the "sides" can continue to come in unimpeded even when the the ball turns to come back down. But the nether from the top is impeded and a new path for incoming nether must be created from the bottom. This requires more energy than would be the case for nether to come in mostly from the "sides".
In an antenna with multiple electron motion and a relatively long distance for the electrons to travel, this effect is even more visible. The nether flow comes in as if it were entering a cylinder rather than a hemisphere. The tendency of the nether to accelerate in a straight line for energy conservation (see Book Three) does the rest. The wave moves out in a plane perpendicular to the motion of electron travel.
So the light wave, which is like a ripple on a pond, moves outward through an expanse of incoming nether that is shaped like a disc. And that means that both the incoming nether and the wave shape are essentially in a plane like an infinitely large dinner plate.
Gravity, as we know it, is an acceleration of nether moving inward or downward relative to the surface of our planet. It has essentially no tangential vector. This is because gravity is the result of the combined inward vectors of nether flow for the many vorticles that comprise our planet. The gravity funnel of our planet has cross-sections (theoretical spheres), through which nether must pass, which have cross-sectional areas that exceed the total areas of nether inflow for Earth's constituent vorticles. So the nether in our planetary gravity funnel compresses in two directions and extends in another (see Book Two).
However, at the level of the electron, there is a tangential vector equal to the inward vector, and very slow nether "velocity" in each case as compared to what we have with our gravity. So gravity at the electron level is very small. It is so small relative to charge and the nuclear forces that it is usually discounted in calculations at the subatomic level. However, the other forces compete with one another at the macroscopic level and average to essentially zero, while gravity becomes a combined force of all the constituent vorticles that constitute a mass such as a planet.
The illustration on the next page shows only an element of nether and there are
an infinity of small elements matching this one that are part
of the vortex.