(Theory Update on Neutrinos)
Copyright (C) 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002
by Lew Paxton Price and Herbert Martin Gibson
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This part of the webpage is necessary as an update on the neutrino. It occurred to me in early May, 2002, that the supposed nature of the neutrino as published in the first edition of Book Six of Behind Light's Illusion is both lacking and excessively complicated as compared the alternative found here. Furthermore, there is an aspect of advanced ether theory which can only be addressed as what particle physicists call the neutrino. I apologize for taking so long to realize such an obvious match between concepts.
According to particle physics, leptons are particles with a spin of 1/2 and which do not respond to the strong force. According to advanced ether theory, leptons are entities which act like particles, have a spin of 1/2, and do not respond to the strong force. But, frankly, including the neutrinos in the same classification was a mistake caused by ignorance of the their true nature.
In advanced ether theory, there are six kinds of leptons which are vortices, the electron, the muon, the tau, and their antimatter counterparts. These vortices are "simple" as opposed to those of other subatomic entities. The only stable vortex leptons are the electrons and positrons, and the positron never lasts long in our part of the universe. Consequently, only the electron is a part of our usual variety of matter.
When a nucleus decays by emitting an electron or a positron it is said to be undergoing "beta decay". In the equations for beta decay, charge and nucleon number are conserved. However, angular momentum (spin) is not - unless another entity is introduced called the "neutrino". The existence of neutrinos was suggested by Wolfgang Pauli in 1930. It explains the energy distribution of electrons or positrons and the missing angular momentum in beta decay. It also explains the missing angular momentum in other decay processes such that of the pion or muon.
The concept of the neutrino began as a means of explaining the lack of angular momentum in one or the other side of an equation. This appears to be no more than a way out of another unpleasant problem given to particle physicists. But it is more than that.
In mainstream physics, neutrinos are classed as leptons. There are six known kinds: the electron neutrino, the muon neutrino, the tau neutrino and their antimatter counterparts. Neutrinos are very numerous and travel at the speed of light. They all seem to have the same angular momentum (spin), and they certainly carry it with them. They seem to be without mass or charge. They have no means of showing themselves unless they collide with other particles. They can penetrate the most dense matter. Consequently, they are very difficult to detect.
In advanced ether theory, the photon is nothing more than a series of waves moving outward from a vibrating electron. Planck's constant is the a measure of the energy in the passage of one wave. However, Planck's constant is not the most fundamental quantum. The actual fundamental quantum is half of Planck's constant which is found in the half-wave of light. Each complete vibration of an electron creates one complete wave. However, the sudden movement of a vortex (such as the electron) in one direction creates a half-wave. If there is no return movement, and no immediate future movements in a rhythmical manner, there is no photon and no way to easily detect the half-wave. The sudden flipping of a vortex from right-side-up to up-side-down also creates a half-wave. Whenever there is a change in two vortices as exists when there is a sudden joining or separating, or whenever there is fusion or fission of nuclei, half waves are emitted as either increased or decreased rotational energy (spin).
The single half-wave is one of the most ubiquitous entities in our universe of ether and vortices. It is a transverse acceleration of ether moving outward like a ripple on a pond. It is the fundamental which forms the waves of a photon. It is (1) formed initially as angular momentum (spin), (2) used as a means of transporting angular momentum at the speed of light, and (3) accepted as angular momentum when discharging its energy. It is without charge, mass, or gravity. It is capable of penetrating the most dense mass and travels at the speed of light. We can detect it only when it collides with another entity. Otherwise, we are unaware of it unless it directly affects one of our equations.
In every way, the concepts of the neutrino and the half-wave are alike except that the neutrino is supposed to be a particle and the half-wave is simply a half-wave - neither a particle nor a vortex. So what I am proposing is that any neutrino is, in reality, a half-wave in our ether universe.
Some mathematical reasoning is next for those who have read Book Four of Behind Light's Illusion.
There have been numerous articles about neutrinos changing identities in space and in our atmosphere. This has been a problem with conventional physics theories. However, if the neutrino is accepted as an electromagnetic half-wave, this is not a problem at all. Half-waves can collide or merge with other half-waves to become something with different energy. Bear in mind that half-waves can come from transitory vorticles (what particle physicists call particles) as well as the stable electron or positron.
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